How Marketing Affects Society

Absolutely everyone looks to be into marketing these days and you have to marvel how marketing impacts modern society currently.  From the young teenagers to the retirees, a ton of folks want to get in advance of the levels of competition by implementing a marketing strategy.  Simply because of the way we do business now, everybody is on equivalent grounds when starting up.  So it does not issue if you are young, outdated, weak or wealthy.  If you are into marketing, you’ll start where everybody began – at the base.

That is one of the beauties of marketing.  It is not like out there in the authentic entire world where the wealthy get richer and the weak get poorer.  Consider a wealthy and weak man or woman and have them contend versus each individual other in marketing and you may perhaps be surprised at the benefits.  It is a issue of figuring out how to effectively use resources.  That is how marketing impacts modern society – by advertising equality among the folks.

Even so, marketing is also like survival of the fittest.  Specially in the course of these occasions of the Net, you can conveniently fail if you never know how to use resources.  That is why it is a canine eats canine entire world in marketing.  There is a ton at stake so it is obvious that entrepreneurs will do just about anything to triumph.  A ton of folks have their own businesses that they want to market.  You now have to be cautious of entrepreneurs who use unfair methods in get to get in advance.  On the other hand, levels of competition also provides innovation.  That is also how marketing impacts modern society.  It promotes healthier and harmful levels of competition.

Consumers are now much more vigilant as at any time.  They know if you are trying to pull a fast one on them by marketing anything that isn’t deserving of all the major talks.  They are also much more apprehensive by the more mature marketing methods.  It just does not function on them any longer.  If you are even now stuck in the outdated ways of marketing your business, they’ll see suitable by means of you and it will be less complicated for them to say no.  Our consumers are now wiser since there are a ton of possibilities so they can conveniently say no.  You then have to think of a further marketing strategy in get to seize their curiosity.  That is a further issue how marketing impacts modern society.  It can make us make improvements to on how we do our business.

So if you are heading to acquire a look at it, it impacts modern society from both equally the side of the customers and the entrepreneurs.  So what can you do?  Considering that we all have equivalent chances of succeeding, why not go into a business that is ground breaking?  Balanced levels of competition is fulfilling.  That is, if you are on the winning side.  That suggests you have to make improvements to your marketing strategy.  For case in point, look at out SixFiguresPro.com to see an ground breaking products that consistently increases its marketing methods.  You can look at it out for absolutely free to see a leading dwelling business opportunity to see how you can apply it.  If you are even now questioning how marketing impacts modern society, look at out that link to see how it can support make improvements to oneself as a marketer so you can support modern society as effectively.

Source by Scott Whaley

Tips on Integrating a New eCommerce Shopping Cart into Your Website

If you want to start selling products or services through your existing website, you can do so thanks to one of the many eCommerce shopping cart solutions currently available. To make sure that your new business expansion goes smoothly, here are a few tips to consider:

Choose the Right Shopping Cart Platform

Your choice of online shopping cart software will depend on a few factors, including the type of products that you sell and the platform the rest of your site is based on. If you’re offering digital downloads, there are many eCommerce solutions that let you securely make your products available to your customers immediately after purchase.

Many of the most common website content management systems like WordPress, Durpal and Joomla have shopping cart plugins that you can use to integrate an online store to your current website seamlessly. While these plugins aren’t designed for large enterprises, they’ll likely suit your needs if your store is small.

Ensure Your Hosting Is Up to The Task

Having the best merchant shopping cart won’t help you if your web host is constantly having problems. Before you launch your store, you should make sure that the hosting solution you’re using is powerful enough to handle an eCommerce site. Shared hosting accounts are cheap, but often can’t handle larger shops with more than a few dozen products. Consider upgrading to a VPS or dedicated server solution in this scenario.

Test Everything Before Launching

Don’t make the mistake of launching your online shopping section without testing it first, says SecureNetShop. Try all functions of your new shopping cart so that you can be certain that they’ll work for your customers.…

Importance Of Data Mining In Today's Business World

What is Details Mining? Nicely, it can be described as the method of getting concealed details from the piles of databases for analysis functions. Details Mining is also acknowledged as Information Discovery in Databases (KDD). It is practically nothing but extraction of data from massive databases for some specialized do the job.

Details Mining is mostly utilized in various apps this kind of as being familiar with purchaser research marketing, solution analysis, demand and offer analysis, e-commerce, financial investment trend in shares & genuine estates, telecommunications and so on. Details Mining is based mostly on mathematical algorithm and analytical expertise to push the wished-for results from the big databases selection.

Details Mining has terrific great importance in now&#39s remarkably competitive business ecosystem. A new idea of Business Intelligence data mining has advanced now, which is commonly utilized by foremost company properties to keep ahead of their competitors. Business Intelligence (BI) can help in providing newest details and utilized for competition analysis, current market research, cost-effective developments, take in behavior, industry research, geographical details analysis and so on. Business Intelligence Details Mining can help in determination-making.

Details Mining apps are commonly utilized in direct marketing, overall health industry, e-commerce, client partnership management (CRM), FMCG industry, telecommunication industry and monetary sector. Details mining is obtainable in various kinds like textual content mining, web mining, audio & online video data mining, pictorial data mining, relational databases, and social networks data mining.

Details mining, on the other hand, is a critical method and involves heaps of time and patience in accumulating wished-for data owing to complexity and of the databases. This could also be possible that you require to glimpse for help from outsourcing companies. These outsourcing companies are specialized in extracting or mining the data, filtering it and then retaining them in purchase for analysis. Details Mining has been utilized in various context but is staying usually utilized for business and organizational needs for analytical functions

Generally data mining involves heaps of guide work this kind of as accumulating details, evaluating data, using world-wide-web to glimpse for a lot more information etc. The second choice is to make program that will scan the world-wide-web to uncover relevant information and details. Software choice could be the ideal for data mining as this will save large quantity of time and labor. Some of the well-liked data mining program courses obtainable are Connexor Devices, Totally free Text Software Systems, Megaputer Text Analyst, SAS Text Miner, LexiQuest, WordStat, Lextek Profiling Motor.

Nevertheless, this could be possible that you will not get appropriate program which will be appropriate for your do the job or getting the appropriate programmer would also be tricky or they may possibly cost significant quantity for their expert services. Even if you are using the ideal program, you will still require human help in completion of assignments. In that situation, outsourcing data mining work will be a good idea.

Source by Scott Naxton

Travel Vacation Business Opportunities Reviews

Conventional Travel Business apply is to book massive blocks of rooms, cruises, resorts, and air vacation in the course of the peak vacation situations throughout the yr.  This apply would make it just about unattainable for the tiny male to get a great offer booking a trip.  Travel Business exerts leverage in this way to improve stock and profits.  The personal is difficult pressed to come across any bargains even in spots with surplus stock given that availability is controlled by this regular industry operating course of action.  Considering that most individuals are not able to vacation any time they want this Travel Industry’s design is very powerful and carries on to get the job done effectively for the industry base line.

Now if you have the ability to vacation at the fall of a hat you can get a much better offer but you are nevertheless in the grasp of the vacation industry’s business design, the Travel Discounters, you know the names.  When a fall lifeless expiration date techniques for the bigger vacation sellers then this exact same surplus stock is launched into the next aspect of the food items chain which are your Price reduction Travel Brokers.  These brokers go on some price savings to the consumer but nevertheless control big vacation blocks insuring profit and control for their business design.  This cycle is repeated 7 days just after 7 days and there is constantly stock that is perishing.  This perishing stock is sizable and makes a great opportunity, but this opportunity is not open to John Q Public.  Nicely at the very least that was the situation until now.

Primo Vacations Club is a brand name new vacation and trip club with a very special business opportunity hooked up to it. It is positioned to grow to be a leading participant in the vacation industry which by the way is a seven Trillion dollar industry.  Primo Vacations Club was launched by Rob Hanley and Dave Garven who are also the co-founders of the massively effective Your Web Biz business opportunity.  The aim for Primo Vacations is to offer far more unmatched and unbeatable benefit and services, than any other vacation and holidays club, although giving price savings of up to eighty% on luxury condos, cruises, villas, resorts, and inns at the most appealing destinations all over the world.  
Primo Vacations Club was developed to be of great benefit and opportunity.

There are numerous vacation business possibilities out there that range in value from $two,995 upwards to $9,995.  Some of these enterprises are World-wide Resorts Network, MOR Vacations, Resorts 360, and Cruise To Money they definitely are not in the vacation business but instead in the opportunity business.  What I imply by that is that none of these possibilities allow you to offer a vacation membership to the consumer straight like Primo Vacations Club does.  In this article are the fees involved with these business possibilities:  World-wide Resorts Network $three,500.00 in addition $149 month-to-month, Resorts 360 $three,995.00 or $399 and $249 month-to-month lifetime, MOR Vacations $one,998.00 in addition $149 annual, and Cruise To Money $977.

None of the earlier mentioned talked about enterprises are set up to offer vacation but instead offer opportunity with a vacation products.  Thus none of the earlier mentioned talked about business products really allow you to carve out a specialized niche in the seven trillion dollar vacation business.  Moreover, net information demonstrates that there are about 23 million individuals globally looking to get started a house based mostly on-line business. Details gathered from surveys reveals that individuals individuals say they are only inclined to shell out $one,000 to get started business. That usually means that if you chose an opportunity like World-wide Resorts Network, MOR Vacations, and Resorts 360, you would have misplaced 99% of the world-wide opportunity seekers marketplace.  Why marketplace to one% of the world-wide business opportunity seekers and shut yourself out completely from the seven trillion dollar vacation industry?

In this article are the details to guidance this statement:  With the Primo edge you get a sensational lifetime vacation club membership with personalized vacation concierge at unheard of vacation price savings of 40-eighty% and there are in no way any dues. Additionally you get to help you save on, condos, inns, all-inclusive resorts, villas, cruises, and air fare.  The next edge, need to you pick to pursue the Primo business opportunity, is a absolutely integrated marketing procedure full with internet site integration and a back again workplace to track all areas of your business.  The marketing procedure presents you with Specialist Business Assistants at no added cost to do the telling, outlining, and offering to your potential clients.  The back again workplace also incorporates interactive coaching and teaching alongside with dwell coaching calls to support you study at your have speed and realize your plans.  The procedure is can-am spam act compliant with a absolutely integrated automated responder to adhere to up with your potential customers with participating e-mail.  Your potential buyer base is comprised of business opportunity seekers alongside with customers exploring for inexpensive high-quality vacation.  These are just some of the capabilities and rewards that arrive regular with the Primo Vacations Club opportunity.  In contrast to the other vacation business out there it is an astounding benefit and discount at $697.

To recap you can grow to be a Primo Vacations Club lifetime member for a onetime payment of $697 and in no way pay back any dues and love vacation price savings of 40-eighty% off endlessly.  If you pick to pursue the business opportunity, you grow to be a club member for a onetime payment of $697 and pay back $49 a month-to-month to maintain your Primo Vacations back again workplace.  If you determine not to marketplace the business you can end at any time but you will constantly love the vacation price savings as a lifetime member with no added fees.  Many club users say that they joined for the price savings and recouped the cost of their membership with the initial trip they booked and were being delighted at how very simple it was to make money with the marketing procedure.  If you want to know far more about this opportunity you will come across a valuable url that will get you to the company tour in my resource box titled Go Primo Vacations.

Source by Minnesota Carl

What Is Digital Marketing?

In the past 10 years, the reliance on the Web has undoubtedly modified the way in which business is carried out. It is distinct to most business proprietors that with no an on line presence, your business is truly lacking out on a majority of marketing, advertising, and accomplishment. Presently, everyone who is everyone maintains their have website, social media system, and of class a site. If you are a business owner and you do not have a site, you are neglecting to industry oneself in the most productive way. That is why it is critical for every business to not only develop a internet site for them selves, but also strengthen its presence by way of electronic marketing.

What is electronic marketing? And, how / why is this sort of advertising so important to a business? Let&#39s contemplate these important aspects of on line strategizing:

What is electronic marketing?

In its incredibly essence, this sort of advertising conjoins the promotion and advertising in an on line system. The basic concepts, values, advertisement strategies of traditional marketing are even now at the core of this revolutionary section, there is a seemingly additional insightful guise into the client conduct and focus on demographic. This electronic promotion possesses all sorts of web marketing, nonetheless it focuses on electronic media. Seo is only a person sort of electronic marketing tactic.

The way in which electronic promotion is enforced is one more exciting residence. Numerous resources can be used to boost goods and companies of a business, like internet websites, mobile units, instant messages, and SMS among lots of many others. In addition, the electronic character of this sort of marketing is regarded as a person of the most price tag productive indicates of advertising.

Two sorts:

Thrust electronic marketing: Just as the identify indicates, thrust marketing is projected to thrust the advertising details directly towards the focus on clientele. Generally moments, marketers will initiate the thrust marketing by way of electronic mail, RSS, or SMS, truly concentrating on the receiver or clientele with a individualized message. This indicates is also strong in that it is straightforward to observe, watch, and measure the relative efficacy of the marketing.

Pull electronic marketing: The pull strategy of marketing is aimed at garnering customers to occur to you. The marketing for this indicates will be communicated to compel the unique to make a get in touch with to motion or occur stop by your business. The most apparent or pervasive illustration is a web web site, site, or any other Web primarily based medium. When this indicates of electronic advertising is not as straightforward to personalize or observe, it is even now productive and strong nonetheless.

Source by Robin Percyz

Sales Marketing: What You Need To Know

However Marketing and Sales ought to go hand-in-hand to attain any constructive progress, in truth it is largely the reverse. Whilst lousy marketing for a great product or service can be as disastrous as using a joy trip in a sabotaged plane, weak change more than will need not automatically be blamed on unrealistic marketing plan alone.

Right before delving deeper into the subject it demands to be talked about here that although there is a ton of romantic relationship among the two, but it can be properly mentioned that ‘Marketing’ is a much broader term than ‘Sales’. Sales are essentially a element of Marketing. In other text, a company has a marketing plan, and sales is one suggest in which the company attempts to meet its marketing plans.

But ironically there is normally a conflict among these two departments. The Marketing individuals can come to feel the pulse of the industry and provide prospects, but are normally rebuffed by the Sales individuals who argue that their ‘feelers’ ended up off beam. Sales individuals normally assert that the figures fell shorter than the projected volume simply because of this. What ever be the circumstances, it is obvious that just about every undervalues the other to these kinds of extent that their integration, a factor much is wanted to preserve the business likely, finally turns into a fantasy.

To attain synch between Marketing and Sales it may perhaps turn into needed for the Marketing individuals to get included in all ranges of product or service enhancement, using along the Sales staff with them so that they much too can respect the prospects to be finally supplied by the Entrepreneurs. In other text, starting up at the floor root stage and then progressively likely up alongside one another, instead of using up the marketing at any mid-phase alone may possibly be fruitful. Also, Marketing’s increasing impact in just about every stage of an organization’s progress deeply affects its romantic relationship with Sales.

But in spite of the pressure among these two departments, each Marketing and Sales will need to operate alongside one another for the results of any business. Functionality of other departments much too vastly depends on this romantic relationship. And that is why present day day management tries to create a welcoming environment exactly where marketing and sales will work in synch.

Sales, Marketing and the Online

When it arrives to the online world, can marketing and sales be differentiated? Is the act of promoting more than the Online via an online shop an act of marketing? Or is it sales?

Well the actuality is, promoting a product or service or goods or a company more than the Online is primarily sales. And the act of supporting this perform is marketing.

Choose for instance the online main Amazon. When the company does marketing workout via channels these kinds of as common Tv, radio, magazines and billboards, then all these routines can be termed as marketing efforts that are geared toward making a brand consciousness and brining in world-wide-web site visitors to encourage and aid sales.

But in many smaller sized retailers, marketing and sales normally turn into one and the same as most of these corporations cannot normally afford a greater marketing workout and restrict them selves just to the workout of sales.

Source by James Copper

Is Ambit Energy a Scam Or Legit Opportunity? Ambit Energy Review

I decided to look into an opportunity referred to as Ambit Strength thanks to the amount of scams working online, this is what I uncovered out.

AE is a retail electrical power supplier based mostly in the United States, it follows an Network marketing or multi-level marketing solution in offering for its clients.

The Company Origin

Ambit Strength was launched in 2006, as an electrical power supplier in America. The impartial consultants and employees are regarded as to be the most important movers of the company. Jere Thompson functions as CEO and positioned the offices in the West Finish district of Dallas, Texas.

The Merchandise

Ambit Strength features its most important merchandise, electrical power. Considering the fact that electrical power desire is increasing all around the country, the company is professing to give people the appropriate quantities they will need without having expending far more.

In New York, this company caters to the Countrywide Grid and ConEd territories in New York and Extensive Island. In Illinois, AE caters to household organic gas people. Texas serves as the design for deregulation, considering that household consumers spend far more than $24 billion each individual calendar year. It functions to assistance cut these expenses considerably.

Promoting the Merchandise

The impartial consultants operate by using a just one-to-just one community. They convey to their family members, pals and other contacts about the opportunities that the retail electrical power company features and earn commissions and income. Deregulation should be emphasised when representing the merchandise of electrical power. This company is a pending member of the DSA or Immediate Promoting Affiliation. The DSA Code of Ethics is adopted throughout procedures.

This company appears to be to have a legit opportunity.

Nevertheless, the Important Dilemma I see is the marketing system. This company teaches its reps to prospect family members & pals, do residence functions, obtain prospects and distribute brochures.. I really don’t think this to be a good marketing system. With the Online, business can be leveraged to achieve millions across the world.

Last thoughts? Get your self a good and established marketing awareness to make this business operate with my Free CD, which will assistance you recruit customers a full good deal simpler than the techniques taught. Go to the connection beneath for Ambit Strength income strategies...

Source by Hassan Ajmal

Understanding Schema’s Influence On Marketing

Did you know that thanks to a large vary of schema’s that the actual similar visible ad can be interpreted in distinct techniques?   That is why it is vital that a marketer should be conscious of schema’s and the impact that they have on buyers.   It is also important to take note that schema’s just you should not exist in the realm of marketing.   The impact of schema’s on human actions has roots in other locations of research this sort of as Gestalt Psychology, cultural anthropology and sociology.

What are schemas?   They are an arranged collection of beliefs and inner thoughts that a man or woman has.   They are shaped as folks expertise existence and then group those people existence activities with each other to type views.   An example would be the “rely on no a single in excess of thirty” schema that was extensively held by infant boomers prior to they them selves turning thirty.

Why are knowledge schema’s important in marketing?   It is a individuals schema that makes it achievable for two folks to appear at the actual similar ad and respond to it in distinct techniques.   Just as schema’s can vary in between individuals they can also be shared in particular if those people folks were born in the similar time time period like our infant boomer example.

How can marketers improved have an understanding of schema’s?   Entrepreneurs can improved have an understanding of schemas by researching generations.  This is the circumstance since many of the existence activities folks have are a result of the key gatherings that have occurred to anyone in a modern society.   For example feel about existence in the United States just before September eleventh and existence now.   That a single pivotal party forever changed the way folks believed and behaved.

When do marketers take into consideration the impact of schema’s on their do the job?   If they are any very good, marketers will integrate their information of schema’s in all that they do.   Know-how of a goal market’s schema will impact almost everything from the language utilized in the marketing information to the technique utilized to distribute the solution.   For example a savvy marketer would have an understanding of that referencing the phrase “blind pig” in their marketing information would signify a single point to an 89 yr aged and quite a further point to a 21 yr aged.   They would also have an understanding of that children of the 1990’s would be much more comfortable ordering a solution on line than a youngster of the 1940’s.

In summary, knowledge schemas and their impact is pivotal to marketers as well as a whole host of other disciplines.   Schemas are an important variable in marketing since they affect almost everything from how buyers will respond to your ad to whether or not or not they would even be fascinated in your solution or provider in the first put.   For more info on this topic or other business similar issues seek the advice of your area marketing specialist.

Source by Killeen Gonzalez

Profile of a Marketing Manager

In today’s competitive business environment, marketing department in any company is a very crucial department. The marketing strategies of a company have the potential to make the products or services of that company a success or a failure in the eyes of the target audience. Thus, the job of a marketing manager is very critical. It is a prestigious but there are huge responsibilities on the shoulders of a marketing manager. Marketing manager jobs are available in all big companies and some large companies even have multiple marketing managers if they have more than one type of product or services to offer. To understand more about a marketing management job, it is important to go through the job profile of a marketing manager. In this article, we will explore what are the different duties and responsibilities of a marketing manager.

As the job title suggests, the responsibility of a marketing manager is to formulate a firm’s marketing strategy and plan keeping in mind the policies of the company and revenue targets. In a marketing management job, the incumbent would be required to plan such marketing strategies that can win over new clients and retain the existing ones. With the support of the sales team and the marketing team , a marketing manager makes estimates of demand in the market for a company’s products and services and sets targets accordingly. It is also the duty of the marketing manager to promote these offerings to the customers in a positive manner and communicate with the target audience how the product or service is beneficial for them.

It is the job of a marketing manager to study and research the market and based on the practical results of such research, make a marketing plan that best addresses all the concerns of the market. A marketing manager can influence the enthusiasm and willingness of customers and thus help in increasing sales. As per the budget of the organization and the business environment of the industry, a marketing manager has to come up with the most effective and cost-efficient plan. Thus, the marketing manager becomes responsible for the profit and loss with respect to the product and its sales.

To get a marketing manager job, one must hold a master’s degree in business administration with the specialization in marketing. This educational qualification can be acquired even after a few years of working as a graduate. This is generally essential to land a marketing manager’s job in most firms. During the course period, the students are taught best practices of the industry and the ways to assess and read market demands and data and conduct research productively. Thus, it is good to acquire this qualification, if one is looking to get the job of a marketing manager.

Other than this, the soft skills required to be a successful marketing manager are very good communication skills, persuasion skills, a certain degree of shrewdness, quick thinking and appropriate decision making skills. These are some of the essential qualities that are required to be a good marketing manager. Most companies try to assess these skills and qualities before hiring a marketing manager. Strong verbal and oral communication skills are a must to possess to be successful at the job of a marketing manager.

Mostly all decisions of a marketing manager are based on the market research based on qualitative, quantitative, technical and observational techniques. It is after all these studies and researches that the marketing manager formulates policies and makes strategic decisions with an aim to increase the profits of the company. Some decisions are taken keeping in view profit over the long run, market share and revenue growth.

Thus, summing up the job of a marketing manager is to formulate, direct and coordinate marketing activities and policies for proper promotion of products and services. It is his job to work with advertising and promotion managers to implement the strategies. It also comes under the purview of a marketing manager to direct the hiring, training, and performance evaluations of marketing and sales staff and supervising their daily activities. A marketing manager is also required to evaluate the financial aspects of products and ensure that expenditures and investments are according to the profit-loss projections. Basis this, he develops pricing strategies.

Source by Geetika Jain

Marketing of Academic Libraries, Chalanges and Practice

INTRODUCTION

During the last two decades, a major change and development has happened in libraries. A critical element for that has been the development of telecommunications and information technologies-ICT. From the 80’s the automation of libraries has received a great impulse, and many libraries have introduced more and more ICT equipment and its applications, creating their own web sites, generating compact discs, and producing leading projects. It has provided libraries with a more refreshing and distinctive touch and new directions are now conceived by libraries. The technological environment and the extraordinary growth in the use of Internet has definitely improved the cooperation among libraries and eliminated almost all restrictions. Academic libraries today look totally different than they did twenty years ago. Thanks not only to the technologies but also to the information agents. Economic changes, technological developments and other forces have reshaped and redefined librarians’ way of thinking.

The library in this era need to redesign the services and revision must be done to the information profession to meet the ICTs development and to give the chance for the library to grow from the regular types of libraries to the universal information services, and from a conservative library to a modern virtual library (Feria, 2000).

This increase of information technologies and the explosion of available information are the most obvious changes in academic libraries. The amount of human knowledge is doubling almost every five years; the number of students has almost doubled since 1970’s, same for the number of teachers and researchers with large diversity of user groups. And library users must learn to use different databases and interfaces successfully to be part of the knowledge expansion (Nims, 1999).

Information providers are now more diverse and the academic library is not the only provider in the higher education market like before. Users can get their information from other information providers. Using the Internet, they can access volume of information over the computer without coming into the library building or interacting with a librarian at all. In addition, libraries now face competition from traditional bookstores like online bookstores such as Amazon.com. Along with small shops that offer inviting environments to sit and read books, with drinks and friendly staff to answer questions. The revolution in information services that is taking place in academic libraries makes it essential that libraries design new services that meet the user’s needs better than other providers. With all that the idea of applying marketing principles to academic library services is greeted with hesitation and doubt (Nims, 1999).

MARKETING PRACTICE

In the last few years, the products and services provided by libraries have changed considerably. The challenges to library services from changes in educational approaches, the impact of technology, new methods for information provision and declining budgets have meant that marketing is now so necessary that it cannot be considered a separate function. It is the whole business seen from its final results; that is, from the client’s perspective. In determining new approaches, many libraries have come to appreciate the contribution that the marketing concepts can make. In designing the marketing mix and developing the marketing plan, the so-called 4Ps have become central to libraries – product, price, place, promotion. Any library using marketing techniques to develop its operations focuses on its products or services; the price paid, which may be in money, time or energy; the promotional strategies by which library collections and services are made known to potential clients, including publications, displays and participation in events; and the physical facilities or place from which services are made available and distribution strategies which increasingly use the Internet and virtual as well as real approaches. Positioning and politics can also be considered in the mix and incorporate positioning the product in the mind of the client and public policy and politics (Madhusudhan, 2008).

Marketing has been defined as the: “… analysis, planning, implementation, and control of carefully formulated programs designed to bring about voluntary exchanges with target markets for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives … [and] … heavily dependent on designing the organization’s offering in terms of the target market needs and desires and on using effective pricing, communication and distribution to inform, motivate and service the market” (Kavulya, 2004, p.118). True marketing is a repetitive process and a systematic approach for matching services and products to the user needs and desires. Marketing is the key ingredient in the success of any nonprofit organization (Koontz, 2004).

The study of the practices of library marketing activities of universities in Kenya, explores the marketing practice in Kenya academic libraries and what are the obstacles that face this practice. Result of the study prove the need for academic libraries to be more aware of their role in the academic atmosphere and show the library importance and relevance to the academic community by its contribution to research and teaching which is the main purpose of the university. By doing this the academic library can insure the support of the university. The study proves that showing the library informational role will prevent academic libraries from being marginalized by the institution that support the library. If they fail to do so the library risk being seen as irrelevant and lead to becoming more and more marginalized in the university educational process (Kavulya, 2004).

The job of marketing services is not as easy as marketing a product, the service cannot be returned and cannot be stored. Dissatisfied customer cannot return an unsatisfactory service as he can an unsatisfactory product. And a customer can often choose to perform the service himself. Successful marketing is characterized by four activities. First is market research to identify customer needs and wants, second is market segmentation to allocating resource to customer groups, third is marketing mix strategy which includes the products or services, priced, delivered and promoted; and finally the fourth which is evaluating the marketing effort (Tucci, 1988).

1. Market Research

The needs of the library users are the core of the marketing process. It is the user who drives marketing and ultimately shapes the product or service. Marketing is not just the four P’s (product, price, promotion, and place). Marketing is planned and executed process which includes marketing research to develop services and products, then evaluating the results and integrating the findings into future services and products. The majority of mission statements of academic libraries neglect the concept of letting the users’ needs dictate the services orientations (Nims, 1999).

Academic libraries need to be more persistent in investigating user’s needs by using Marketing approach to develop services that meet their expectations. It is not just marketing of already available services to the users but to find out what the users want (Kavulya, 2004). Marketing research is the function that links the information professional to the customer’s needs and wants. Marketing research can be done by reviewing internal customer data in the library and also by recognizing usage categories for materials that are being checked by students, categories like user types; students or faculty, date of entry, type of material, and so on (Koontz, 2005).

In the Saint Mary’s University library experience, Lefebure (2002) found that the Patrick Power Library had a very uninviting environment. The library building and the interior design was really uncomfortable. Although the library was known for its efficient, thorough and friendly service, the library seemed to be disregarded because few only knew how excellent the library resources were and how good was the service inside. The positive side of the library was undermined by the dim and tired appearance of the building itself. At the same time the financial resources were rare and not easy to acquire for renewal or redesigning the library. Even the electronic services were not known to all of the students and not many knew that inside the library there were many computers linked directly to the Internet with major electronic information services. So the challenge was to design a marketing campaign that would transform the library to make it a welcoming place (Lefebure, 2002).

By conducting a marketing survey to take the student opinion and thoughts regarding the library services, students “who are the main clients of the academic library” put more emphasis on atmosphere and ease of access through the Internet than the more traditional library methods. Students revealed what services would encourage them to use the library more; the majority of respondents in the sample group mentioned a coffee shop, and more resources. Other factors mentioned were updated materials; food and beverages allowed in the library; better climate control; atmosphere; lounge area; and better lighting. The final factor cited was promotion of the facilities. It was clear that the students themselves recognized that they were not fully aware of what was available to them. This experience demonstrates that market surveys and research do work if you ask the right questions, and not just asking the regular current users of the library. But surveys should also investigate the needs of students who do not come to the library. And the best marketing is word of mouth. Students often consult each other rather than approach the reference desk. Yet if the reference staff is efficient, friendly, helpful and solutions-based, the students will generate positive word-of-mouth about the service. On the other hand, good marketing is soon void if the student meets an unfriendly staff member (Lefebure, 2002).

Not many users have sufficient knowledge of the academic library, library services, and information technologies. And many students hold negative attitudes towards librarians. Mu (2007) demonstrates that 75 to 85 percent of college freshmen viewed the library as scary, overpowering and confusing. And the biggest challenge faced by reference librarians is to create a positive image. Librarians need to develop the ability to create a welcoming environment.

Although more and more librarians are getting familiar and comfortable with promotional activities and public relations, they often use marketing principles without realizing it. In the course of planning new services or evaluating existing service, many academic librarians assess their users and their needs, segment their intended users, and target services to certain populations. Marketing can assist libraries in determining their future and in identifying quality products, services, programs, and materials (Nims, 1999).

Relationship marketing, in particular, reflecting the mutual interests of libraries and the clients they serve, is being seen as a concept for libraries to embrace. Libraries after all, are built on relationships. Marketing is directly linked to the client’s perceptions of the services the library offers and the library’s interpretation of the client’s needs. In developing and maintaining relationships, it is essential that all clients are identified and their needs understood. Market research is a useful tool for discovering and understanding client needs and identifying better ways to meet those needs. If changing process is involved, it is always easier to change one-self than it is to change others (Madhusudhan, 2008).

2. Market Segmentation

Marketing segmentation means grouping customers for best product delivery and resource allocation to better promote the service to specific groups, for instance media type, graduate, undergraduate, and faculty. They could be also segmented by online users or walk in users, or the time they spend inside the campus, or by database users and physical items checkout (Koontz, 2005). The purpose of marketing segmentation is to target the customer rather than the product or the service. The aim is to provide services that satisfy individual rather than a generalized service. Taking into account the various market segments and their needs, market segmentation involves research to determine the quality of the library service and its contribution to the mission and the objectives of the parent organization. Data are collected looking at users’ awareness and attitude to the library service, customer satisfaction levels, and the major strengths and weaknesses of the library in terms of staff, resources, programs and facilities. Studying the organization and users helps create appropriate library services and programs as well as guide the planning of the right marketing strategy. This marks a departure from promoting …